Helbring Schültz: Publikationen

Mathematisch- naturwissenschaftliche Texte/
Scientific Articles

Bible Studies


- Wasserstrahlkerze

- Water Jet Candle [English]

- Wasserstrahlkerze mit Unterdruck Koppelbereich

- Water jet candle with low  pressure coupling range [English]

- Heronsbrunnen

- hero's fountain [English]

- Vorwärts in die Vergangenheit: Von der Wasserstrahlkerze zum Heronsbrunnen

Echte und unechte Kuriositäten/
Real and Fake Curiosities

Brain Teasers


[Download File as a Word-Document]

Water jet candle

Water jet candle - the discovery of a working principle for hydro pneumatical conversion of potential energy above the highest system-specific hydro statical potential

Known is, that potential enegry is increased by work by height modification against gravitation, on the contrary is reduced in direction of the gravitation by emitting work. Not known is that a fountain can be created by system-specific energy in a compound of interconnected tanks above the highest free water surface. This succeeds however, if a statically effecting air potential is integratingly overlayed a hydro statical energy potential. By this addition of potentials results a resulting which effect lets rise to the top a water jet above the free water surface of the highest water supply.

Reference symbol list
Ffountain (water jet)
DPdown pipe
h1height of the water surface in the base tank (relative to zero potential L0)
h2height of the water surface in the high tank (relative to zero potential L0)
hDDhx2-hx1 = equivalent quantity to pressure height hPE
hFLequivalent height of the water column in the down pipe to hSL
hFmaxmaximum fountain height in case of loss free current
hPEh2-h1 = pressure height of the available hydro statical potential energy
hRPmaximum height of the water column in the rising pipe
hxvariable height
hx1h1+hDP = height of the water column in the down pipe at the end of the first part evacuation
hx2h1+hPE+hRP = height of the water column in the down pipe for generation of the maximum fountain height hFmax
hx3sum of all statical and cinetical water columns
L0zero potential of the system
L1energy potential in the height h1
L2energy potential in the height h2
APair pressure (surrounding pressure)
S1free water surface in base tank
S2free water surface in high tank
SDPwater surface of the water column in the down pipe
R1base tank
R2high tank
RAPresidual air pressure (vacuum)
RPrising pipe
VRresidual pressure respectively vacuum reservoir

In school is teached, that potential energy can always only be converted into cinetical energy in direction of an energy fall and beneath the uppermost positioned potential energy. All energy laws gained by experience correctly confirm, that water always flows downhill and the often said stone always falls downwards. Nevertheless a stone could hover 1 m above its original position by observation of all relevant energy conversation laws, if a energy compensation would happen equivalent to its new position. A working principle of this kind is not known so far. Also is unknown, that hydro statical can be converted into hydro cinetical energy by system-specific energy above the free water surface of an uppermost positioned interconnected tank. For completion of the so far state of knowledge the discovery of such a principle is presented in the following as a hydro pneumatical working system.

System description
Water always will flow form the tank of the higher energy niveau in the tanks of the lower energy niveau by conversion of potential energy into cinetical energy, if at least two tanks are interconnected in a conventionally way. There foremost the cinetical enegry changes to rest energy if a height compensation of the water surfaces of all tanks is achieved. A sum potential takes effect, if on the other hand the interconnection of the tanks is realized by overlaying of a statically working air pressure potential. This effect exists, because by the overlay of the lower energetic hydro statical energy potential by the higher energetic air pressure potential the hydro statical potential energy can be converted from hydro statical into hydro cinetical energy at any place within the higher pneumatical energy potential range. Thus pure theoretically the water fountain can reach a height of 10 m in the range of the water column air pressure equivalent. On the other hand a fountain can rise above the free water surface of the uppermost positioned water tank in any height beneath of 10 m.

Function description
Figure 1 represents one of more physically realisable possibilities called water jet candle. Following description of the step by step setup may serve as an easy to understand function description:

1.The base tank (R1) and the high tank (R2) are filled with water. The only hydro statical energy potential (hPE=h2-h1) available to the system appears by the height difference of the free water surfaces (O1/O2).
2.The end of a tube not drawn in figure 1 is inserted through an outlet (Q) up to the vacuum reservoir (VR), with which it is sensitively evacuated. Thereby water columns rise in the rising pipe (RP) and in the down pipe (DP).
3.The evacuation is temporarily stopped, if the water column in the rising pipe has reached the upper nozzle edge, thus the height hX2. Under 4. is stated:
4.The water column height in the rising pipe has reached the value hSL relative to the surface (O2). At the same time the water column height in the down pipe has reached the value hFL relative to the surface (O1) and ends at hX1. Both mentioned water column heights have to have equal values, so that hSL=hFL, because the same air pressure (AP) and in the vacuum reservoir the same residual pressure (RAP) take effect on the free water surfaces.
5.The water column in the down pipe can rise by the value HDD before it has reached the expected end position at the upper edge of the rising pipe nozzle at the height mark hX2, by continuation of the evacuation broken under 3. But what happens with the water column in the rising pipe? Its surface already had reached a preliminary end position according to 3.
At this place wie make a little mental experiment and imagine that the rising pipe is lengthened to the top by an added glas pipe. Then, in case of enduring evacuation, both water columns would rise, the one in the down pipe and the one in the fitted glas pipe. This time the evacuation is breaked by thought, if the water column in the down pipe reached the upper edge of the rising pipe (hX2), thus the position on which the imagined glas pipe is added. On the occasion a water column had built up in the imagined glas pipe with the height hFmax. A pressure of hPE would be at the nozzle opening, since hFmax=hPE.
On the one hand the water in the down pipe rises to height hX2, if the real evacuation mentioned by the mental experiment is continued without the thought glas pipe. On the other hand a increasing fountain (F) rises from the rising pipe nozzle cooresponding to the outlet pressure. It would reach a maximum height of hFmax in case of loss free streaming. The fountain itself is on the occasion the visible conversion of hydro statical into hydro cinetical energy above the uppermost system-specific free water surface. In the present case above O2.
6.The water that streams from the high tank as a fountain from the nozzle at the upper edge of the rising pipe into the vacuum reservoir, falls back to the surface (OFL) of the water column in the down pipe. It flows downwards in it and enters through the opening the base tank. This process endures until the high tank runs empty. This process would endure infinitely in case of constant height of the surfaces (O1/O2).

Actual working principle
By the description of the function mentioned above could be concluded, that the working principle of the water jet candle arise by a suction effect resulting by vacuum. Indeed the fountain bubbles into the vacuum reservoir according to figure 1 and 3, but the causal source force of the fountain has absolutely nothing to do with vacuum and suction. The fundamental characteristic of this working principle is the team play of overlayed energy potentials in the gravitation field of earth.

Final observation and outlook
The introduced working principle is a new discovery for which no practical application is still known. It can be supposed that similiar working principles with other kinds of energies of the fields of force could lead to practicable solutions. Of special interest would be working principles, with whose help mass could be freed or reduced from gravitation partly or totally, should the occasion arise only in determined heights, durably or limited in time. Easier and cheaper transportation possibilites would result from this and offer economic advantages.


Figure 1
The schematical working principle of the water jet candle is represented in figure 1. Despite the variety of reference symbols the connections of the functions are relative easy, since only known physical priciples take effect. The function case for hx2=h1+hFL+hDD is represented at loss free streaming. This function case corresponds to the maximum possible conversion of hydro statical into hydro cinetical energy, since hFmax=hPE.

Figure 2
Figure 2 shows a vector diagram that qualitatively represents the conditions of equilibrum of rising and down pipe for itself and to each other. For simplification the maximum possible energy conversion of the system for hFmax=hPE is choosen for the theoretical case of loss free streaming.

Figure 3
Figure 3 shows the photo of a water jet candle made by glas. The water levels in the base and high tank can be recognized very clearly. A water amount of about 200 cm3 runs out in approximately 2.5 minutes. The fountain jet, that streams to the dome of the vacuum reservoir, has an outlet velocity of about 1,4 m/s. The water is turned round in the dome and runs down the walls to the surface of the water column in the down pipe. In this it flows downwards and through the opening into the base tank. The fountain stops to spray when the high tank runs empty. Figure 3 shows the function case hx2=h1+hFL+hDD for hX

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